Originally published on FoodUnfolded.com in September 2019.
Growing up in India where saffron is synonymous with luxury, I knew saffron as the ‘we’re expecting guests’ spice. Today at €25,000 a kilogram, it is the most expensive item in my neighbourhood’s supermarket! Let’s take a look at what makes saffron the most expensive spice in the world.
WHAT IS SAFFRON?
Saffron comes from the flower of Crocus sativus (also known as saffron crocus). More specifically, from its stigmas and styles. Most historians speculate it was first domesticated in Iran, but south-western Greek islands remain strong contenders. Traders, conquerors, and world explorers introduced it to China, India, and the Middle East.1 From there, it travelled to Mediterranean Europe.1 At present, Iran, Greece, Morocco, India, Spain and Italy are the world’s top saffron producers.2
Saffron, as we know it today, cannot be produced without human intervention. The seeds produced by its flowers are sterile, making natural pollination impossible.3 The plant reproduces asexually via vegetative propagation. Cultivation is done through corms, which are its bulb-like stems that grow under the soil. 3 The Crocus sativus plant likes dry, warm weather, but tolerates light snow.Its favourite type of soil has clay with a good mix of calcium carbonate and other organic matter.4
Corms are sowed in summer and the saffron crocus flowers are ready to be harvested mid- to late-autumn. The flowers must be harvested by hand, before or immediately after sunrise so that they are not damaged by direct heat from the sun. The flowers are very delicate, and many growers believe mechanical plucking damages the saffron crocus flowers.
Each flower produces only 3 stigmas. Once the flowers have been harvested, its stigmas must be plucked and dried for around 12 hours. It takes between 15,000-16,000 flowers to produce 1 kilogram of saffron spice.5 In terms of labour, producing this amount takes 370–470 hours!5 It is this labour-intensive harvesting process that makes saffron so expensive.
IS YOUR SAFFRON HIGH QUALITY?
Of course, not all saffron is of the same quality. Colour, age, amount of non-stigma content, pliability, among other things determine quality and the price. Given its high price, adulteration is quite common unfortunately. In fact, it has been so common throughout history that in the Middle Ages, those found selling adulterated saffron in Europe were executed under the Safranschou code.6
Adulterants like beetroot or pomegranate are used to enhance its red colour; silk fibres, oil, or wax is used to add bulk, and powdered saffron can be adulterated with turmeric and paprika.
Standardised laboratory tests have been developed in the recent years to check its quality. This is an external process, done by retailers or traders who buy in bulk. This means that if you purchase your saffron spice from a trustworthy source, you’re most likely getting home good quality saffron. If you spot unusually cheap saffron, it could be adulterated.
HOW AND WHY IS SAFFRON USED?
Several cuisines around the world use saffron for its distinguished colour and aroma. It forms the backbone of several iconic dishes from around the world such as the Spanish rice, meat and seafood dish Paella, the French stew Bouillabaisse, Italian rice dish Risotto Milanese, the Indian ice cream Kesar Kulfi, Pakistani rice and meat dish Biryani, and baked Iranian rice Tachin (just to name a few).
The intense yellow colour that saffron creates in food is because of α-crocin, a carotenoid. α-crocin is also hydrophilic, meaning that it dissolves in water readily. Picrocrocin is another important compound and gives saffron its slightly bitter flavour. During the drying process, picrocrocin breaks down and turns into saffranal, the compound that makes saffron smell like it does: earthy and hay-like.
SAFFRON IN COSMETICS & MEDICINE
While saffron today is mostly used as a spice, it has a long history of being used in the preparation of cosmetics and medicines. Ancient Romans were known to steep saffron in their wine because they believed that it prevented hangovers. It was also believed that the spice worked as a sedative, antispasmodic, expectorant, and aphrodisiac. Pharmacopoeias (written medicinal records) around the world have even mentioned saffron for many centuries.5
- F. Gresta et al (2008). Saffron, an alternative crop for sustainable agricultural systems. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, Springer Verlag/EDP Sciences/INRA, 2008, 28 (1), pp.95-112. Accessed 20th July 2019.
- Ghorbani Mohammad (2008). The efficiency of saffron’s marketing channel in Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal 4.4 (2008): 523-527. Accessed 22nd July 2019.
- Maria Grilli Caiola (2003). Saffron reproductive biology. International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Biotechnology. Accessed 22nd July 2019.
- Deo Bas (2003). Growing saffron—the world’s most expensive spice. Crop Food Research 20.1: 1-4. Accessed 20th July 2019.
- Peter Winterhalter & Markus Straubinger (2000). Saffron—Renewed Interest in an Ancient Spice. Food Reviews International, 16:1, 39-59. Accessed 19th July 2019.
- Pat Willard (2002). Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World’s Most Seductive Spice. Beacon press. Accessed 20th July 2019.